Abolition To bring to an end. In this context the campaign to end the Transatlantic slave trade
Anarchism Belief in societies where people willingly govern themselves
Ancien regime A long-standing system in France, where the monarchy, aristocracy and Catholic Church held absolute power and privilege over ordinary people
Anticlericalism Opposition to religious authority
Authoritarian Demanding that people obey completely while limiting personal freedom
Boycott A way of protesting against something by refusing to participate or to buy goods
Calvanist Relating to the Christian teachings of John Calvin, particularly the belief that God controls what happens on earth
Campaign An organised effort to achieve a goal or make a change
Colonisation A process of one country taking over another in order to exploit it. The original inhabitants are usually dominated and oppressed politically, economically, culturally and/or socially.
Colony A territory partially or completely controlled by another country and settled by those people
Commodity An article of trade, especially a raw material or product
Communism A political and economic system where society is classless and stateless (without government) and the methods of production and making money are owned and shared by all
Constitution The political principles which govern a territory, especially in relation to the rights of its people
Culture An identity based on the ideas, values, customs, social behaviour, beliefs and/or language of a particular people or society. Cultures can continually evolve for individuals and communities.
Democratic Allowing and enabling everyone to have equal representation and involvement in making decisions
Diaspora The spreading out of any group of people, forcibly or voluntarily, away from their homeland
Disenfranchise To take away power or opportunities from a person or group – often refers to the right to vote
Emancipation Being set free, or granted rights equal to others who already enjoy them
Empire A group of territories ruled by a single person or government, usually as a result of invasion and/or colonisation
Enfranchise Give power or opportunities to a person or group – often refers to the right to vote
Enslavement To make a slave of a person. Being held in captivity and servitude.
Establishment A group or class of people having authority within a society, in this context especially those who control the government, the armed forces and the Church
Feminism The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities
Globalisation The process of the world becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased geographical knowledge, trade, cultural exchange and communications
Hispanic Relating to Spain or Spanish-speaking countries
Independence Self-government of a territory
Industrialisation The transformation of an economy from being based mainly on farming to one based mainly on the manufacture of goods, with individual manual labour being replaced by mass production using machines
Innovation A new method, idea or product
Legitimate Lawful, legal
Liberalism In this context, a political philosophy based on equality and freedom
Manumission To free people from slavery
Memorial Something that keeps alive the memory of a person or event
Migrate To move from a country or region to live elsewhere, forcibly or voluntarily – often applied to a large group of people
Monarchy When a king or queen is head of a state. They may have different levels of power.
Philanthropist A person who uses their time, money or skills to help create a better world.
Plantation A large area of farmland, or estate, planted with particular crops
Proponent A person who puts forward an idea, or course of action
Radical Someone who believes in or advocates for extreme social or political change
Radicalism Belief that society needs to be changed, and that these changes are only possible through revolutionary means 
Refugee A person who seeks shelter or protection from danger or distress in a country other than their own
Republic A state which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
Republicanism A political ideology that supports freedom of government without a monarchy
Resistance To strive against, or refuse to comply (sometimes secretly) with a decision or an established way of doing things
Revolution A significant change with a lasting and often far-reaching impact on people
Romanticism An artistic, literary, music and intellectual movement of the late 1700s and early 1800s that originated in Eruope. The characteristics of this movement can be difficult to define, but have their roots in liberty, individual rights, creativity, our relationship with nature, a nostalgia for a time before industrialisation and a sense of emotion and spirituality.
Sedition Encouraging people to rebel against the authority of a state or monarch
Shackles Iron chains used to restrain prisoners or enslaved peoples
Slave Someone who is made to serve another. Having no freedom or personal rights. One who is the property of another whether by capture, purchase or birth.
Slaver Someone who earns a living from enslaving people.
Socialism An economic system where the means of production and making money (e.g. farms, factories, mines) are owned and shared by society (as opposed to being owned by a small number of people making large profits from the work of others)
Subversive Seeking to undermine someone or something – usually sneakily
Suffrage The right to vote in political elections
Theologian Someone who studies the nature of God, religion, and religious beliefs
Transatlantic Across the Atlantic ocean
Transatlantic slavery A brutal system which lasted 300 years. It allowed African men, women and children to be stolen from their homeland, bought and sold as property, and used to produce sugar, coffee, cotton and other goods for huge profit in the European and North American markets.
Transnational Across or between several nations
Transportation In this context an extreme form of punishment, second only to the death penalty, where British convicts were shipped to Australia, often for petty crimes. Many didn’t survive the voyage. Detainees were subjected to harsh labour and punishments.
Underground railroad A secret network of people, meeting places, routes and safe houses used to help enslaved people escape from the southern states of the US to the north and Canada
Uprising Act or instance of rising up, rebellion
Utilitarianism Belief that all actions should be for the greater good and of equal benefit to all