Between 1792 and 1815 the remarkable exploits of the French Republic and, later, the French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte, precipitated a series of wars that reconfigured the face of nations and societies within Europe, across the Atlantic, and far beyond. These became known as the ‘French revolutionary’ and ‘Napoleonic’ wars. Because of their prolonged length and unmatched scale, these wars wrought extensive destruction on populations and landscapes. They also generated remarkable innovations in tactics and technology and energised new initiatives as states desperately competed to control and mobilise adequate manpower and resources. This, in turn, put enormous pressure on production, manufacturing, taxation, trade, and transport. France was at war with Britain almost constantly during this time. Significant battles were fought both on land and at sea, including the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Waterloo, where Napoleon was finally defeated.