Red Phrygian or ‘liberty’ caps were long associated with the theme of liberty in European and colonial cultures. They were used as icons during the American Revolution and worn during the French Revolution in the late 1700s and came to symbolise allegiance to the republican cause. Along with the red, white and blue cockade, pinned to these and other hats, they became a lasting symbol of revolutionary France.
This hat was worn by the French Emperor Napoleon when he commanded the French Army at the Battle of Waterloo.
Resource : Lamartine Rejetant le Drapeau Rouge (Lamartine Rejects the Red Flag): Painted by Felix Philippoteaux
In 1848, a wave of revolution spread from Paris across Europe. In France, the monarchy was finally overthrown once-and-for-all and the country became a republic once again. Alphonse de Lamartine played a leadership role in the provisional government and was instrumental in ensuring the Tricolore remained France’s national flag.